Pursuant to Republic Act 10625, also known as the 2013 Philippine Statistics Act, the Philippine Statistics Authority (PSA) is mandated to prescribe and maintain uniform statistical standards and classification systems to harmonize and ensure comparability of government statistics based on international standards/guidelines, such as the United Nations international standard classification systems.
One of the national standard classification systems being maintained by the PSA is the Philippine Standard Classification of Education (PSCED). The PSCED is a detailed classification of all educational levels in the Philippine educational system. It is based upon two principal criteria, namely (1) level of education, and (2) subject-matter content of the study. It is patterned after the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) developed by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) for the purpose of assembling, compiling, and presenting education statistics, both nationally and internationally.
So far, the Philippines has prepared the following classifications of education patterned after the corresponding international standard classifications of education:
Philippine Standard Classification of Education
International Standard Classification of Education
|2008 PSCED||1997 ISCED|
II. 2017 Philippine Standard Classification of Education
The 2017 PSCED is the latest version of the PSCED which is aligned after the 2011 ISCED and 2013 ISCED Fields of Education (ISCED-F) developed by UNESCO.
The first draft of the 2017 PSCED was initially prepared by the PSA through the Statistical Classifications Division (SCD) of the Standards Service (SS) under the Censuses and Technical Coordination Office (CTCO). A series of consultation meetings to review the draft was conducted with the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) and Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA).
The revised draft was then reviewed by the Technical Working Group on Education Classification (TWGEC) chaired by the Commission on Higher Education (CHED). The TWGEC is composed of the following members: Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA), Department of Education (DepEd), Department of Labor and Employment - Bureau of Local Employment (DOLE-BLE), Department of Science and Technology - Science Education Institute (DOST-SEI), National Economic and Development Authority (NEDA), Philippine Overseas Employment Administration (POEA), Professional Regulations Commission (PRC), UNESCO National Commission of the Philippines (UNACOM) and the PSA. The TWGEC then submitted the revised draft to the PSA Interagency Committee on Statistical Standards and Classifications (IACSSC) for endorsement to the PSA Board.
The PSA Board approved the 2017 PSCED through PSA Board Resolution No. 13, Series of 2017 for adoption by all concerned government agencies and instrumentalities.
1. Purpose of the 2017 PSCED
The 2017 PSCED aims to integrate the different classification schemes used by various government agencies, education and research institutions, and international organizations. It is used for standardizing and facilitating the compilation of quality education statistics for the country as basis for educational planning, manpower training, labor market studies and other related activities. It is useful to those responsible in compiling statistics on education, either from censuses and surveys or from administrative records.
It is also used in the electronic verification and certification system being developed to track progress of students upon enrollment until graduation. Most importantly, it serves as a guide for bilateral trade negotiations of the Philippines with foreign countries especially in the Mutual Recognition Agreement, which provides for labor exchange/sharing among trade partners.
2. Guiding Principles
The following criteria were used in classifying educational programs under the 2017 PSCED:
- Complexity and specialization of educational content
- The main subject matter, the majority of or clearly, predominant part of students’ learning time is spent
- Theoretical knowledge content (i.e. the ideas and concepts involved and their use in explaining facts and predicting outcomes)
- The intended use of the knowledge, skills and competencies gained
- Phenomena, problems or entities being studied
- Methods and techniques for learning and applying the skills and knowledge gained
- Tools and equipment an individual learns to use or operate
3. Structure of the 2017 PSCED
The 2017 PSCED classifies education programs by their content using two (2) main cross-classification variables: levels of education and fields of education.
Levels represent broad steps of educational progression in terms of complexity of educational content from foundational to complex. These categories group education programs in relation to gradations of learning experiences, as well as the knowledge, skills and competencies each program is designed to impart. Levels of education are grouped as follows:
0 Early Childhood Education
1 Primary Education
2 Lower Secondary Education
3 Upper Secondary Education
4 Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education
5 Short-Cycle Tertiary Education or Equivalent
6 Bachelor Level Education or Equivalent
7 Master Level Education or Equivalent
8 Doctoral Level Education or Equivalent
On the other hand, a field is the broad domain, branch, or area of content covered by an education program or qualification. These categories are grouped based on the similarity of the subject matter. Classifying fields of education has been designed in the 2013 ISCED-F as a three-level hierarchy having 11 broad fields, 58 narrow fields, and 149 detailed fields.
|0||Generic programmes and qualifications|
|0||0||Generic programmes and qualifications not further defined|
|1||11||Basic programmes and qualifications|
|2||21||Literacy and numeracy|
|3||31||Personal skills and development|
|9||99||Generic programmes and qualifications not elsewhere classified|
|110||Education not further defined|
|112||Training for pre-school teachers|
|113||Teacher training without subject specialisation|
|114||Teacher training with subject specialisation|
|119||Education not elsewhere classified|
|18||188||Inter-disciplinary programmes and qualifications involving education|
|2||Arts and humanities|
|20||200||Arts and humanities not further defined|
|210||Arts not further defined|
|211||Audio-visual techniques and media production|
|212||Fashion, interior and industrial design|
|215||Music and performing arts|
|219||Arts not elsewhere classified|
|22||Humanities (except languages)|
|220||Humanities (except languages) not further defined|
|221||Religion and theology|
|222||History and archaeology|
|223||Philosophy and ethics|
|229||Humanities (except languages) not elsewhere classified|
|230||Languages not further defined|
|232||Literature and linguistics|
|239||Languages not elsewhere classified|
|28||288||Inter-disciplinary programmes and qualifications involving arts and humanities|
|29||299||Arts and humanities not elsewhere classified|
|3||Social sciences, journalism and information|
|30||300||Social sciences, journalism and information not further defined|
|31||Social and behavioral sciences|
|310||Social and behavioral sciences not further defined|
|312||Political sciences and civics|
|314||Sociology and cultural studies|
|319||Social and behavioural sciences not elsewhere classified|
|32||Journalism and information|
|320||Journalism and information not further defined|
|321||Journalism and reporting|
|322||Library, information and archival studies|
|329||Journalism and information not elsewhere classified|
|38||388||Inter-disciplinary programmes and qualifications involving social sciences, journalism and information|
|39||399||Social sciences, journalism and information not elsewhere classified|
|4||Business, administration and law|
|40||400||Business, administration and law not further defined|
|41||Business and administration|
|410||Business and administration not further defined|
|411||Accounting and taxation|
|412||Finance, banking and insurance|
|413||Management and administration|
|414||Marketing and advertising|
|415||Secretarial and office work|
|416||Wholesale and retail sales|
|419||Business and administration not elsewhere classified|
|48||488||Inter-disciplinary programmes and qualifications involving business, administration and law|
|49||499||Business, administration and law not elsewhere classified|
|5||Natural sciences, mathematics and statistics|
|50||500||Natural sciences, mathematics and statistics not further defined|
|51||Biological and related sciences|
|510||Biological and related sciences not further defined|
|519||Biological and related sciences not elsewhere classified|
|520||Environment not further defined|
|522||Natural environments and wildlife|
|529||Environment not elsewhere classified|
|530||Physical sciences not further defined|
|539||Physical sciences not elsewhere classified|
|54||Mathematics and statistics|
|540||Mathematics and statistics not further defined|
|58||588||Inter-disciplinary programmes and qualifications involving natural sciences, mathematics and statistics|
|59||599||Natural sciences, mathematics and statistics not elsewhere classified|
|6||61||Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs)|
|610||Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) not further defined|
|612||Database and network design and administration|
|613||Software and applications development and analysis|
|619||Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) not elsewhere classified|
|68||688||Inter-disciplinary programmes and qualifications involving Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs)|
|7||Engineering, manufacturing and construction|
|70||700||Engineering, manufacturing and construction not further defined|
|71||Engineering and engineering trades|
|710||Engineering and engineering trades not further defined|
|711||Chemical engineering and processes|
|712||Environmental protection technology|
|713||Electricity and energy|
|714||Electronics and automation|
|715||Mechanics and metal trades|
|716||Motor vehicles, ships and aircraft|
|719||Engineering and engineering trades not elsewhere classified|
|72||Manufacturing and processing|
|720||Manufacturing and processing not further defined|
|722||Materials (glass, paper, plastic and wood)|
|723||Textiles (clothes, footwear and leather)|
|724||Mining and extraction|
|729||Manufacturing and processing not elsewhere classified|
|73||Architecture and construction|
|730||Architecture and construction not further defined|
|731||Architecture and town planning|
|732||Building and civil engineering|
|78||788||Inter-disciplinary programmes and qualifications involving engineering, manufacturing and construction|
|79||799||Engineering, manufacturing and construction not elsewhere classified|
|8||Agriculture, forestry, fisheries and veterinary|
|80||800||Agriculture, forestry, fisheries and veterinary not further defined|
|810||Agriculture not further defined|
|811||Crop and livestock production|
|819||Agriculture not elsewhere classified|
|88||888||Inter-disciplinary programmes and qualifications involving agriculture, forestry, fisheries and veterinary|
|89||899||Agriculture, forestry, fisheries and veterinary not elsewhere classified|
|9||Health and welfare|
|90||900||Health and welfare not further defined|
|910||Health not further defined|
|913||Nursing and midwifery|
|914||Medical diagnostic and treatment technology|
|915||Therapy and rehabilitation|
|917||Traditional and complementary medicine and therapy|
|919||Health not elsewhere classified|
|920||Welfare not further defined|
|921||Care of the elderly and of disabled adults|
|922||Child care and youth services|
|923||Social work and counselling|
|929||Welfare not elsewhere classified|
|98||988||Inter-disciplinary programmes and qualifications involving health and welfare|
|99||999||Health and welfare not elsewhere classified|
|100||1000||Services not further defined|
|1010||Personal services not further defined|
|1012||Hair and beauty services|
|1013||Hotel, restaurants and catering|
|1015||Travel, tourism and leisure|
|1019||Personal services not elsewhere classified|
|102||Hygiene and occupational health services|
|1020||Hygiene and occupational health services not further defined|
|1022||Occupational health and safety|
|1029||Hygiene and occupational health services not elsewhere classified|
|1030||Security services not further defined|
|1031||Military and defence|
|1032||Protection of persons and property|
|1039||Security services not elsewhere classified|
|108||1088||Inter-disciplinary programmes and qualifications involving services|
|109||1099||Services not elsewhere classified|
The classification of fields of education is mainly intended for use at the tertiary level of education (Levels 5, 6, 7, and 8) and for vocational education and training programs and qualifications at the secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary levels (levels 3 and 4).
4. Coding System
For convenience in obtaining aggregates at each level, the code number in the 2017 PSCED is so designated that:
First level (Level) - Levels of Education are represented by the first digit
Second level (Broad Field) - Broad fields are represented by the second and third digits for Levels 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8
Third level (Narrow Field) - Narrow fields are represented by the fourth digit
Fourth level (Detailed Field) - Detailed fields are represented by the fifth digit
The main subject matter of a program or qualification determines the field of education into which it is classified. For practical purposes, the main subject matter of a program or qualification is determined by the detailed field in which the majority (i.e. more than 50%) or clearly predominant part of students’ intended learning time is spent. Where there is insufficient information available to determine the relative shares of intended learning time, the program or qualification is classified in the detailed field listed first in its title.
Where a main subject cannot be identified because the program or qualification covers several detailed fields, or even several narrow or broad fields, in which none dominates, the program or qualification is classified in an interdisciplinary category. As opposed to grouping all inter-disciplinary programs under one category in the 2008 PSCED, each broad field has an inter-disciplinary program category; the “leading subject rule” is used to determine the broad field into which the interdisciplinary study is classified. Such programs are classified by using “8” at the narrow and detailed field levels within the leading broad field as “Interdisciplinary programs or qualifications involving the broad field”.
Supplementary codes are used when processing data not covered in the classification structure. Cases “not further defined” are programs or qualifications not adequately or sufficiently described than that known at a higher level of the classification. Such cases are designated by the use of one or more “0” at the end of codes at the narrow or detailed fields (as appropriate).
On the other hand, cases “not elsewhere classified” are programs and qualifications where the particular detailed field is known and adequately described but is not explicitly provided for in the classification. Such cases are designated by the use of “9” at the detailed field level of the classification (i.e. as the last digit).
During data collection, where the field of study is completely unknown, a code of ‘9999’ can be assigned or, in surveys which are limited to the narrow or broad field levels only, ‘999’ or ‘99’ respectively.
5. Changes Adopted in the 2017 PSCED
The following changes were adopted and incorporated in the 2017 PSCED:
A. On Educational Levels:
- Level 0 “Early Childhood Education” covers early childhood education for all ages, including very young children. Programs are divided into two categories depending on the level of complexity of the educational content. Early childhood educational development programs, introduced as a new category in 2011 ISCED, are generally designed for children younger than 3 years. On the other hand, Pre-primary education corresponds to Level 0 “Pre-Primary/Pre-School Education” of the 2008 PSCED.
- Level 3 “Upper Secondary Education” was adopted due to the enactment of Republic Act No. 10533, otherwise known as the Enhanced Basic Education Act of 2013, wherein the basic education program in the Philippines was expanded to include two years of Senior High School.
- Level 4 “Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary/Technical-Vocational Education” was split into Level 4 “Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education” and Level 5 “Short-Cycle Tertiary Education or Equivalent”. Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) courses and programs spans several PSCED Levels (Levels 3 to 5) due to the institutionalization of Republic Act No. 10647 otherwise known as the Ladderized Education Act of 2014. This Act give students the option to choose when to enter and exit the educational ladder and provide a qualification equivalent to the knowledge and skills gained.
- Level 6 “Second Stage of Tertiary/Post-Graduate Education” was split into Level 7 “Master Level Education or Equivalent” and Level 8 “Doctoral Level Education or Equivalent”.
B. On Fields of Education and Training
- Field 09 “Personal Development” was renamed as Narrow Field 03 “Personal Skills and Development”.
- Field 22 “Humanities” was split into Narrow Fields 022 “Humanities (except languages)” and 023 “Languages”.
- Broad Group 3 “Social Sciences, Business and Law” was split into Broad Fields 03 “Social Sciences, Journalism and Information” and 04 “Business, Administration and Law”.
- Broad Group 4 “Science” was split into Broad Fields 05 “Natural Sciences, Mathematics and Statistics” and 06 “Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs)”.
- Field 42 “Life Sciences” was split into Narrow Fields 051 “Biological and Related Sciences” and 052 “Environment”.
- Field 62 “Agriculture, Forestry and Fishery” was split into Narrow Fields 081 “Agriculture”, 082 “Forestry”, and 083 “Fisheries”, and parts relating to natural parks and wildlife was transferred to Narrow Field 052 “Environment”.
- Most of Field 85 “Environmental Protection” was transferred to Detailed Field 0712 “Environmental Protection Technology” under Narrow Field 071 “Engineering and Engineering Trades”, and parts relating to community sanitation and labor protection and security became a new Narrow Field 102 “Hygiene and Occupational Health Services”.
- Programs and courses were provided as examples of the Detailed Fields.
- New programs and courses refer to those emerging courses and programs which are not found in the 2008 PSCED but are now being offered by schools, hence, were added in the 2017 PSCED.
- Courses/Programs that are not regularly offered by Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) and Training Institutions were not included in the 2017 PSCED but were cited in the annexes for reference.
- Merged or Renamed programs and courses refer to those similar courses that are being offered by different schools using different titles which are combined in one standard program/course in the 2017 PSCED.
- The 2017 PSCED took into account the institutionalization of the Philippine Qualifications Framework (PQF). The descriptions of the educational levels of the 2017 PSCED were mapped with the descriptors of the PQF.
- The concepts and definitions used in the 2017 PSCED are also aligned and consistent with the provisions of Republic Act No. 9155 “Governance of Basic Education Act of 2001” and Republic Act No. 10687 “Unified Student Financial Assistance System for Tertiary Education (UniFAST) Act”.